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Probability for surgical treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis according to the stenotic lesion severity: a 5-10-year follow-up study

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Kang, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Sang-Min; Yeom, Jin S.

Issue Date
BioMed Central
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Vol.23 No.1, p. 573
Background We aimed (1) to clarify difference in the natural history of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) with respect to surgical treatment according to severity of stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using qualitative grading system and (2) to estimate surgical probabilities depending on radiological severity. Methods With the design of retrospective observational study, a total of 1,248 patients diagnosed with LSS between 2011 and 2014 at our hospital were followed up for the mean duration of 7.7 years (5.17-9.8 years). We investigated severity of central and foraminal stenoses on initial MRI using qualitative grading system and whether surgical treatment was performed. Logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for surgery. Results During the mean follow-up period of 7.7 years, grade 3 maximal central stenosis showed the highest percentage of surgical treatment (57.9%-62.3%) with no significant difference in surgical probabilities according to concomitant foraminal stenosis. Surgical probabilities in grade 2 and 3 maximal foraminal stenosis, were 22.2%-62.3% and 33.3%-57.9%, respectively, depending on concomitant central stenosis. Maximal central stenosis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.79, 2.21, and 6.26, respectively), and maximal foraminal stenosis of grades 2 and 3 (OR: 2.22 and 2.12, respectively) were significant risk factors for surgical treatment. Conclusions The high grades of maximal central and foraminal stenoses were risk factors for surgical treatment. Surgical probabilities were 57.9%-62.3% in grade 3 maximal central stenosis, 22.2%-62.3% and 33.3%-57.9%, respectively, in grade 2 and 3 maximal foraminal stenosis during the mean follow-up period of 7.7 years. These results indicate that the natural history of LSS differs according to grade of maximal central and foraminal stenoses.
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