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Structural and functional evidence of bacterial antiphage protection by Thoeris defense system via NAD(+) degradation

Cited 52 time in Web of Science Cited 56 time in Scopus

Ka, Donghyun; Oh, Hyejin; Park, Eunyoung; Kim, Jeong-Han; Bae, Euiyoung

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Nature Publishing Group
Nature Communications, Vol.11 No.1, p. 2816
The intense arms race between bacteria and phages has led to the development of diverse antiphage defense systems in bacteria. Unlike well-known restriction-modification and CRISPR-Cas systems, recently discovered systems are poorly characterized. One such system is the Thoeris defense system, which consists of two genes, thsA and thsB. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of ThsA and ThsB. ThsA exhibits robust NAD(+) cleavage activity and a two-domain architecture containing sirtuin-like and SLOG-like domains. Mutation analysis suggests that NAD(+) cleavage is linked to the antiphage function of Thoeris. ThsB exhibits a structural resemblance to TIR domain proteins such as nucleotide hydrolases and Toll-like receptors, but no enzymatic activity is detected in our in vitro assays. These results further our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the Thoeris defense system, highlighting a unique strategy for bacterial antiphage resistance via NAD(+) degradation. The Thoeris defense system is a recently discovered bacterial defense system that protects bacteria against phage infection and consists of the two genes thsA and thsB. Here, the authors present the crystal structures of Bacillus cereus ThsA and ThsB and show that ThsA is a NAD(+) cleaving enzyme.
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