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Low humoral and cellular immune responses early after breakthrough infection may contribute to severe COVID-19

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dc.contributor.authorLee, Chan Mi-
dc.contributor.authorChoe, Pyoeng Gyun-
dc.contributor.authorKang, Chang Kyung-
dc.contributor.authorLee, Eunyoung-
dc.contributor.authorSong, Kyoung-Ho-
dc.contributor.authorBang, Ji Hwan-
dc.contributor.authorKim, Eu Suk-
dc.contributor.authorKim, Hong Bin-
dc.contributor.authorKim, Nam Joong-
dc.contributor.authorKim, Hang-Rae-
dc.contributor.authorKim, Youngju-
dc.contributor.authorLee, Chang-Han-
dc.contributor.authorShin, Hyun Mu-
dc.contributor.authorPark, Sang-Won-
dc.contributor.authorPark, Wan Beom-
dc.contributor.authorOh, Myoung-don-
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Immunology, Vol.14, p. 1106664-
dc.description.abstractBackgroundLittle is known about the immune determinants for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in individuals vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We therefore attempted to identify differences in humoral and cellular immune responses between patients with non-severe and severe breakthrough COVID-19. MethodsWe prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with breakthrough COVID-19 (severe and non-severe groups) and uninfected individuals who were vaccinated at a similar time (control group). Severe cases were defined as those who required oxygen therapy while hospitalized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry were used to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses, respectively. ResultsAnti-S1 IgG titers were significantly lower in the severe group than in the non-severe group within 1 week of symptom onset and higher in the non-severe group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the cellular immune response tended to be diminished in breakthrough cases, particularly in the severe group. In multivariate analysis, advanced age and low anti-S1 IgG titer were associated with severe breakthrough COVID-19. ConclusionsSevere breakthrough COVID-19 might be attributed by low humoral and cellular immune responses early after infection. In the vaccinated population, delayed humoral and cellular immune responses may contribute to severe breakthrough COVID-19.-
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.-
dc.titleLow humoral and cellular immune responses early after breakthrough infection may contribute to severe COVID-19-
dc.citation.journaltitleFrontiers in Immunology-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorLee, Eunyoung-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorKim, Eu Suk-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorKim, Hong Bin-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorKim, Nam Joong-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorKim, Hang-Rae-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorLee, Chang-Han-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorShin, Hyun Mu-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorPark, Sang-Won-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorPark, Wan Beom-
dc.contributor.affiliatedAuthorOh, Myoung-don-
dc.subject.keywordAuthorbreakthrough infection-
dc.subject.keywordAuthorimmune response-
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Research Area Function, Immune modulation by metabolites, T-cell anergy, differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, metabolism


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