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Gut taste receptor type 1 member 3 is an intrinsic regulator of Western diet-induced intestinal inflammation

Cited 3 time in Web of Science Cited 3 time in Scopus

Shon, W.-J.; Song, J.W.; Oh, S.H.; Lee, K.-H.; Seong, H.; You, Hyun Ju; Seong, J.K.; Shin, D.-M.

Issue Date
BioMed Central
BMC Medicine, Vol.21 No.1, p. 165
Background: Long-term intake of a Western diet (WD), characterized by a high-fat content and sugary drinks, is hypothesized to contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the identified clinical association, the molecular mechanisms by which dietary changes contribute to IBD development remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the influence of long-term intake of a WD on intestinal inflammation and the mechanisms by which WD intake affects IBD development. Methods: Mice fed normal diet or WD for 10weeks, and bowel inflammation was evaluated through pathohistological and infiltrated inflammatory cell assessments. To understand the role of intestinal taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3) in WD-induced intestinal inflammation, cultured enteroendocrine cells harboring TAS1R3, subjected to RNA interference or antagonist treatment, and Tas1r3-deficient mice were used. RNA-sequencing, flow cytometry, 16S metagenomic sequencing, and bioinformatics analyses were performed to examine the involved mechanisms. To demonstrate their clinical relevance, intestinal biopsies from patients with IBD and mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis were analyzed. Results: Our study revealed for the first time that intestinal TAS1R3 is a critical mediator of WD-induced intestinal inflammation. WD-fed mice showed marked TAS1R3 overexpression with hallmarks of serious bowel inflammation. Conversely, mice lacking TAS1R3 failed to exhibit inflammatory responses to WD. Mechanistically, intestinal transcriptome analysis revealed that Tas1r3 deficiency suppressed mTOR signaling, significantly increasing the expression of PPARγ (a major mucosal defense enhancer) and upregulating the expression of PPARγ target-gene (tight junction protein and antimicrobial peptide). The gut microbiota of Tas1r3-deficient mice showed expansion of butyrate-producing Clostridia. Moreover, an increased expression of host PPARγ-signaling pathway proteins was positively correlated with butyrate-producing microbes, suggesting that intestinal TAS1R3 regulates the relationship between host metabolism and gut microflora in response to dietary factors. In cultured intestinal cells, regulation of the TAS1R3–mTOR–PPARγ axis was critical for triggering an inflammatory response via proinflammatory cytokine production and secretion. Abnormal regulation of the axis was observed in patients with IBD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the TAS1R3–mTOR–PPARγ axis in the gut links Western diet consumption with intestinal inflammation and is a potential therapeutic target for IBD. © 2023, The Author(s).
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  • College of Human Ecology
  • Department of Food and Nutrition
Research Area Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Food Science & Technology, Microbiology, 미생물학, 분자생물학, 식품공학


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