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Naegleria fowleri Extracellular Vesicles Induce Proinflammatory Immune Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells

Cited 2 time in Web of Science Cited 2 time in Scopus

Le, Huong Giang; Kang, Jung-Mi; Vo, Tuan Cuong; Yoo, Won Gi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

Issue Date
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol.24 No.17, p. 13623
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) of protozoan parasites have diverse biological functions that are essential for parasite survival and host-parasite interactions. In this study, we characterized the functional properties of EVs from Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba that causes a fatal brain infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). N. fowleri EVs (NfEVs) have been shown to be internalized by host cells such as C6 glial cells and BV-2 microglial cells without causing direct cell death, indicating their potential roles in modulating host cell functions. NfEVs induced increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-a, IL-1a, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-?, MIP-1a, and MIP-2 in BV-2 microglial cells; these increases were initiated via MyD88-dependent TLR-2/TLR-4. The production levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in NfEVs-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells were effectively downregulated by inhibitors of MAPK, NF-?B, or JAK-STAT. Phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38, ERK, p65, JAK-1, and STAT3 were increased in NfEVs-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells but were effectively suppressed by each corresponding inhibitor. These results suggest that NfEVs could induce proinflammatory immune responses in BV-2 microglial cells via the NF-?B-dependent MAPK and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that NfEVs are pathogenic factors involved in the contact-independent pathogenic mechanisms of N. fowleri by inducing proinflammatory immune responses in BV-2 microglial cells, further contributing to deleterious inflammation in infected foci by activating subsequent inflammation cascades in other brain cells.
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  • College of Veterinary Medicine
  • Department of Veterinary Medicine
Research Area Microbiology, Parasitology, Tropical Medicine


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