서양 고대 그리스 로마 세계의 인성 교육
Education by Virtue in the Ancient Greek and Roman World

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서울대학교 사범대학
사대논총, Vol.68, pp. 135-159
This paper outlines the education contents, the education materials, and the education

features covering the child's birth through his elementary and middle school to advanced

school in the ancient Greek and Roman world. In particular, the rhetoric class in the

ancient Greek and Roman world did not only aim to bring up the youths to be

outstanding orators, but also focussed on speech education of each age since it was the

general education of liberal arts by virtue ranging from law, literature, philosophy,

religion, and custom, etc.

At the Homeric Age, the transmission of knowledges starting from the elementary and

the middle education to higher one was totally a private business restricted to the

aristocrat class dependent on private education. The war and the argument were

weighted equal. The change from mythos to logos--from a traditional society that

transmitted its most important thought in terms of story and song to society that argued,

analyzed, and gave an account of itself in terms of science, philosophy, and history-had

already begun by the time rhetoric became an art. In the meantime, the rhetoric

theory system created by Syracusans had been further developed by the sophists. The

sophists were the spiritual mainstays leading the Athenian society at the period when its

democracy had reached the peak. The Athenian education had been specialized

completely in 400 B.C. Isocrates, Platon, and Aristotle were responsible for the rhetoric

education in schools they set up.

At the time of Helenism, the education system and education contents had changed.

People at the Age of Helenism were well known for being avid readers. Among others,

the important education systems including ephebeia, euergetism, and progymnasmata, etc,

had been established.

At the early Roman Age, parents were private tutors for their children. The purpose

of the early education was to transmit the Roman life styles, the traditional Roman

custom and attitude to them, and to educate them to be an excellent model of the Roman citizen. In this respect, the early Roman education aimed at transferring its

tradition to children though not driven by necessity. The children were educated by

their mother until at the age of seven. But thereafter, they were taken care of by their

father for education. The boys unconditionally copied their father. But entering the middle period of 200 B.C., the tradition of such education had

stopped. Their mothers took over the father's role for education because their fathers

were far away from home for civil or army service abroad. Moreover, the

Greek-speaking slaves came to Italy from the East as a pnsoner of war. Some of them

were more learned and more cultured than their masters. The Romans tried hard to

imitate the Greek education practices in order to be more civilized and more cultured

as the conquerors than the conquered. The Roman schools started to open the

curriculum based upon the Greek methods. The young Romans were the first in the

Roman history to begin to be taught by most of the experienced Greek instructors.

However, some part of the curricula borrowed from Greece including music, dance, and

physical education were excluded by the Romans. Since most of the Romans considered

music and dance as not masculine with the main purpose of physical education being

military, they did not pay any attention to physical education as simple games. As a result, the Roman higher education was

restricted to a study of rhetoric. In conclusion, the overall understanding of

progymnasmata process at the last phase of middle education institutionalized III the

early Roman Empire, and of declamationes in controversia and suasoria by higher

education is essential to the correct awareness of education by virtue in the ancient

Roman World.
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College of Education (사범대학)Center for Educational Research (교육종합연구원)교육연구와 실천Journal of the College of Education (師大論叢) vol.68 (2004)
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