S-Space College of Education (사범대학) Center for Educational Research (교육종합연구원) 교육연구와 실천 Journal of the College of Education (師大論叢) vol.50/51 (1995)
民主市民의 正義意識과 體制存續
The Sense of Democratic Citizen's Justice and System Persistence
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 사범대학
- 사대논총, Vol.51, pp. 91-110
- The aim of this paper is to deal with the sense of democratic citizen's justice, the principles of justice which 허1 the citizens should recognize, and the institutional conditions which the principles of justice can be realized in terms of systems persistence. According to John Rawls, the role of the principles of justice is to assign rights and duties in the basic structure of socieη and to specify the manner in which institutions are to influence the overall distribution of the returns from social cooperation. The basic structure is the primary subject of justice and that to which the principles of justice in the first instance apply. If a democratic system is to persist, it has to operate in terms of the principles of justice, which is the essential variables for the system functioning. In this sense Milton Fisk argues that the role of justice in a state is to set limits. In his word, a state's pattern of justice will also include the administrating of distribution through executive agencies. Rawls also assumes that a well-ordered society is stable relative to its conception of justice. This means that social institutions generate an effective supporting sense of justice. In the real world it is totally unlikely that everyone would live in accordance with these principles. Assuming, then, that it would be both morally and socially desirable for every person to recognize and respect the rights to freedom and well-being of everγone else, we need to consider how individuals might come to acquire such a sense of justice. One of the primary tasks of socialization should be the development in everγ person of a respect for the rights to freedom and well-being of all others. The recognition of these generic rights and the disposition to act in accordance with them is what Gewirth calls "Gewirth's principle of generic consistency requires that each person's self-esteem must be related in a corresponding esteem for other persons." This means that people ought to have an attitude of mutual acceptance and toleration toward one another, and that all moral agents have a duty to refrain from actions that hinder the development of the virtues of character in other persons. We must recognize the crucial importance of socialization in helping to inculcate moral principles, educate the moral emotion, and develop the virtues. The sense of citizen I s justice which has been cultivated the socialization process can lead to the persistence of democratic system.