S-Space College of Education (사범대학) Center for Educational Research (교육종합연구원) 교육연구와 실천 Journal of the College of Education (師大論叢) vol.19/20 (1979)
一般社會敎育의 變遷과 課題
The Development and Task of Civic Education in Korea
- 이영기; 김태영
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 사범대학
- 사대논총, Vol.20, pp. 1-16
- After emancipating Korea from Japanese domination in 1945, according to the educational trends to emphasies democratic citizenship education as a main educational objective, social studies in the elementary and· secondary school were thoroughly influenced by the social studies in the United States of America. But in reality, there were many problems to accomodate and practise the social studies to be strange to us, because we had no available text books, no trained teachers and no social understanding for it. On that bad conditions and the complicate controversies for it, we had to practise it in the viewpoint of achieving the objective of democratic citizenship education without studying the theories of social studies and Korean educational situation. The social studies was composed of three kinds of subject; history, geography and civics. The civics of the three kinds of subject was very strange to us while others were traditional and populor in Korea. Comparatively the civics had got well integrated politics, economics, sociology, culural anthropology and law. It was a core of the social studies, especially for the educational objective of democratic citizenship. According to the revision of formal curriculum, the stages of development of civics are divided to three stages. Of course it was set in the study course under the army government in 1946 and it continued to 1954. But the formal curriculum by our government started as the first stage in 1955, and it continued to 1962. In this stage the civics was to be divided by "general social studies" and "morals" therefore in the curriculum structure it was different from the civics in the United States of America. The civics in this stage had emphasised domecracy, anti-communism and moral education. The second stage continued from 1963 to 1972. The civics in this stage had emphasised the national identity, economic development and modernization. The third stage continued from 1973 to now. The civics in this stage have emhhasised national defendence, national coherence, national culture, national identity and Korean demoracy. Anyhow we can describe the characteristics of civics in social studies in Korea as following; 1. The social studies has played roles that realize the modern educational trends, so that civics has been a core of social studies in the objectives and contents. 2. The civics has been initiative to achieve the objectives of general education. 3. The civics has played roles as an initiative curricula for human education (moral education) 4. The civics has been very sensitive to the national policies. Accordingly the tasks could be described as following; 1. We have to inquiry the general theory of integrative civics. 2. We have to prepare the future-oriented curriurlum to prevent social problems. 3. We have to embody a structure of disciplinary education on the civics. In prospective civics, the contents of civics will be a magnified in the social studies and the factors of moral education for human education will be magnified in the contents of civics.