S-Space College of Education (사범대학) Center for Educational Research (교육종합연구원) 교육연구와 실천 Journal of the College of Education (師大論叢) vol.15/16 (1977)
17世紀 國語의 終結語尾 硏究 : A Study of Korean Sentence-Final Endings in the Seventeenth Century
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 사범대학
- 사대논총, Vol.16, pp. 113-143
- The purpose of this thesis is to systematize the Korean sentence-final endings in the seventeenth century. Korean final endings indicate Mood and Speech Levels. While the system of Mood has little historical changes, Speech Levels show much differentiation in Modern Korean rather than in Middle Korean. Final endings in the seventeenth century have four Speech Levels; namely, Plain style, Familiar style, Authoritative style and Polite Formal style. Mood endings, if we classify them according to the form of Polite Formal style of Speech Levels, can be divided into three; Imperative, Declarative and Interrogative. Each of the Mood endings has. four Speech Levels. Authoritative style is differentiated from Familiar style by adding honorific prefinal ending sʌp. As a result, final endings of Authoritative style are same to those of the Familiar style; they are -o/ so in Imperative, -i in Declarative and -nka, -lka, -nko, -lko in Interrogative. Imperative -o/ so in the seventeenth century is found out to be phonological allomorphs, considering the Imperative endings -zo/ dzo of the sixteenth century. It is assumed that in the seventeenth century, -o is used after vowel stem endings, -so after consonant stem endings , but at that time there are also dialects using only -so, which can be found in Chuphaishineu(據解新語). Declarative ending -1 becomes -nʌj, -təj, -swj, -saj combined with pre-final endings. interrogative. endings of Authoritative and Familiar style take the form of -nka, -lka, -nko, -lko even after noun with corpula. And these Interrogative endings function to express doubt or curiosity of the speaker regardless of the Speech Levels. But in the first half of the sixteenth century, Familiar and Authoritative style are not differentiated, there are only Familiar style. In the Plain and Polite Formal style, while the final endings of Middle Korean is still used, -rwa, -lwa, -ltwa are appeared as a new declarative final endings with vowel ə 'in Middle Korean become mostly a in the seventeenth century. In conclusion, the final endings of the seventeenth century have much more differentiated system than that of Middle Korean and it may be said that the final endings since the seventeenth century would undergo many changes as might be proved in comparison of the final endings of the seventeenth century and Modern Korean.