S-Space Language Education Institute (언어교육원) Language Research (어학연구) Language Research (어학연구) Volume 06 Number 1/2 (1970)
現代國語의 準自立形式에 對한 硏究 : 形式名詞를 中心으로
A Study of the Semi-free Forms in Modern Korean -With Emphasis on Bound Nouns-
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 언어교육원
- 어학연구, Vol.6 No.1, pp. 17-55
- 1. There are many semi-free forms called bund (dependent) nouns and auxiliary verbs in Modern Korean. The purpose of this article is to study the identifying standard of bound nouns such as the morphemes, and their syntagmatic relations to adjacent forms, and their fluctuations. 2. The important features of bound nouns are exhibited in their occurrunce between modifier forms and particles. This distinguishes bound nouns from free forms. Therefore, bound nouns can be called the semi-free forms. In the past, however, grammarians did not take into consideration such features. As a result, many free nouns and suffixes have been wrongly considered to belong to the same category as bound nouns. For this reason, I collected 99 bound nouns cited in the grammars and dictionaries written by scholars, both Korean and foreign. According to an objective standard, I concluded that only 57 of them were genuine bound nouns. The standards a"re as follows (1) Requirement of Dependence When a free form occurs in post-modifier position without any semantic difference, it should be considered as a bona fide free form tentatively functioning as a bound noun . However, if such a form assumes a meaning greatly different from its original meaning due to the syntagmatic context in which it occurs, it should be considered as a bound form. (e.g., 말， 지경 ) It should be noted here that some forms must be classified as belonging to either of the two forms. (e.g., 수, 법) (2) Requirement of Syntagmatic Restrictions Even if a form is free from syntagmatic restrictions in its combination with adjacent forms, it should be considered as a bound form if it lacks syntagmatic autonomy. (e.g., 것 , 이 ) (3) Requirement of Post-modifier Position A bound form , incapable of following a modifier, is regarded as a constituent of a compound word or a suffix. (e.g., 액땜 , 욕가마리 ) If a bound form comes after a noun, it is regarded as tentatively performing the function of a particle. (e.g. , 대로， 만큼) (4) Requirement of a Pre-particle Position Even if a bound form does not follow the particles, it can be entered as a boud noun, if it is combined with either a noun or a modifier form. (e.g., 겸 , 족족) 3. When the bound nouns combine with modifier forms and particles, they exhibit generality or restriction.
(1) Combining with the modifier form s.
a. General bound nouns: 것, 이, 바; 만큼, 듯 etc.
b. Present bound nouns: 바람, 통 etc.
c. Perfect bound nouns: 지, 채로 etc.
d. Presumptive bound nouns: 나위, 만 etc.
(2) Combining with the particles.
a. General bound nouns: 것, 이, 바; 녘, 등 etc.
b. Subjective bound nouns: 지, 수, 나위 etc.
c. Predicative bound nouns: 따름, 뿐 etc.
d. Adverbial bound nouns: 만끔, 듯 etc.
The syntagmatic relations of bound nouns to the modifier forms and to the
particles parallel in most instances. (e.g., 것, 이, 바).
There are a few exceptions. (e.g. , 만큼， 듯 ; 녘 , 등)
4. The function of the bound nouns is in a state of flux in Modern Korean.
They are changing into particles and final endings in most cases, suffixes in a few. The formation of idioms by the bound nouns is also very productive.