S-Space Language Education Institute (언어교육원) Language Research (어학연구) Language Research (어학연구) Volume 12 Number 1/2 (1976)
現代國語의 文體法에 대한 硏究 : 敍法體系(續) : Sentence-Types and Mood System in Modern Korean
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 언어교육원
- 어학연구, Vol.12 No.1, pp. 17-53
- 1. The purpose of this paper is to establish sentence-types and to systematize mood categories on the basis of my previous analysis of sentence-fÌnal endings in Modern Korean.
2. It might be said that these are seven sentence-types from structural and semantic viewpoint. They can be divided into two main classes depending on whether the speaker wants to exert an inB.uence on the wilI of the hearer or not. In the former class we must include not only ordinary Declarative and Exclamative, but also Promissive. In the second class there are four types: Interrogative, Imperative, Propositive, and Preventive. The aim of these types is to inB.uence the will of the hearer: Interrogative demands calling for a piece of information and the . others call for action.
3. The above-mentioned sentence-types could be also divided into Volitive and Nonvolitive mood according to whether they contain an element of wiIl or not: the speaker's psychological attitude could be represented through these sentence-types. The Non-volitive mood is expressed by the sentence-prefÌnal endings preceding Declarative, Interrogative and Exclamative markers. On the contrary, Volitive mood is represented by Promissive, Imperative, Propositive and Preventive markers themselves. The Volitive mood markers with which 1 am now concerned should be necessarily affixed to the action verbs: the subjects of the Volitive mood sentence are always in the fÌrst and the second person' However, Non-volitive mood markers do not show any restrictions in combining with verbs, their subjects can be in any person.
4. The above-mentioned sentence-types and mood-system are a little different from the ones in indirect .speech. In this case we fÌnd four sentence-types: Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Propositive. The Exclamative, Promissive and Preventive which were identifÌed in direct speech do not appear in direct speech. The same phenomenon can also be proved in the mood system. Among Indicative, Retrospective, Presumptive, Apodíctíve and Assertive which 1 identifÌed in direct speech only three classes: Indicative, Retrospective and Presumptive appear in this speech.
5. The sentence-fÌnal endings which 1 have called so far sentence-types show many changes even in Modern Korean_ The Declarative endings of descrÍptive verbs and copula in familiar speech level are being graduaIly unifÌed with the ones of action verbs. In colloquial speech nearly all sentence-final endings are being simplified to yo-dropped endings and yo-added endings, although they are not simplified in indirect speech.