S-Space Language Education Institute (언어교육원) Language Research (어학연구) Language Research (어학연구) Volume 14 Number 1/2 (1978)
Semantics in translation
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 언어교육원
- 어학연구, Vol.14 No.1, pp. 11-24
- This is a study of the conditions of complete translation and the possibility of automata translation. 1) The complete translation is depending on the translaters understanding of language A, the functional completeness of language B, the functional completeness of language A and the translaters ability to express in terms of language B in case that the translater is translating from A into B. 2) Language A is different from language B if more than one of the followings are different between them; primitive .symbols, syntactic rules, semantic rules or pragmatic rules. 3) The language A is functionally complete in the absolute sense if and only if A can express completely what the users of A intend to express. Language A is relatively complete to language B if and only if B has the representing expression bi for every expression ai in language A. (a;, b) is a representing relation if and only if the referents of ai and bi are the same. In case the relative completeness is failed to hold, there are the difficulties of translation, which is the case in most languages. 4) Especially in formal languages the representing relation in two different languages should not be regarded as equality within a language, hence the substitution rules cannot be used between repesenting expressions. The completeness of formalization is depending on the representing relation and the original language. In this sense there is indeterminacy of translation. 5) The difficulties of translation can be avoided in terms of the understanding of language A. In case an expression ai in A does not have any representing expression in B, this difficulty can be avoided either by the understanding of context or tranditeration. If not, the two languages in case are said to be alternative. Also the indeterminacy of translation can be overcome in terms of pragmatic considerations. 6) The characteristic of computer system capable of thinking, reasoning and learning functions normally associated with human intelligence, is said to be artifìcial intelligence. 7) By using the development of artifìcial intelligence, in principle, automata translation is possible, providing that the complete study of transformation rules is done, which is independent of semantic interpretations. 8) If we understand the thesis of logic as salva veritate, the intention of this paper is to extend this thesis inbetween the languages, which has been discussed within a language: so far. As a byproduct, the cultural difference can be quantifìed in terms of the formulation of the relative completeness of languages used.