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취학전 아동의 개념발달과 관련된 인지능력 검사방법에 대한 측정학적 비교
Psychometric Comparisons of Testing Methods on Cognitive Abilities Related to Preschoolers' Conceptual Development: Semantic-versus Perceptual-Based Approaches

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Authors
신종호; 조성원
Issue Date
2003-03
Publisher
서울대학교 교육연구소
Citation
아시아교육연구, Vol.4 No.1, pp. 41-64
Keywords
의미중심검사지각중심검사개념발달일반화변별
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 취학전 아동의 개념발달과 관련한 인지적 기제인 일반화와 변별 능력을 측정하는 두 검사방법인 의미중심검사와 지각중심검사의 측정학적 특성을 비교하는 것이다. 전통적으로 아동의 개념학습과 관련한 능력을 평가하는데 기하학적 도형을 이용한 지각중심검사들이 많이 사용되어 왔다. 하지만, 이러한 전통적인 지각중심검사들이 측정학적 특성에서 문제점을 가지고 있다는 지적과 함께 이를 대체할 대안적 검사방법에 대한 필요성이 제기되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 지각중심검사를 대체할 대안적 검사방법으로 의미중심검사의 타당도와 관련한 측정학적 특성을 조사하고자 하였다. 대안적 검사방법으로 의미중심검사의 선택은 인지심리학, 신경생물학, 그리고, 아동기 개념발달에 대한 선행연구 결과에 근거해 이루어졌다. 본 연구에서는 지각중심과 의미중심 검사방법의 측정학적 특성을 상호비교하기 위해 세 개의 연구문제를 설정하였으며, 설정된 연구문제에 대한 경험적 결과를 얻기 위해 만 4세에서 6세의 취학전 아동 93명을 대상으로 자료를 수집하였다. 연구결과, 의미중심검사가 지각중심검사보다 준거검사인 아동의 표현어휘력 그림검사와 더 높은 상관을, 그리고 일반화와 변별 능력의 발달적 차이를 반영하는데 있어서 상대적으로 더 높은 민감성을 나타내 보였다. 하지만 연령집단에 따른 집단변별 타당도에 있어서는 두 검사방법 모두 연령집단간 차이를 민감하게 반영하는 것으로 나타났다. 종합적으로 본 연구결과는 의미중심검사가 지각중심검사보다 취학전 아동의 개념발달과 관련한 인지적 기제인 일반화와 변별 능력을 더 타당하게 측정할 가능성을 가지고 있음을 보여준다.



Conceptual development is critical for cognitive development in early childhood and for school learning in later years. Concepts are more than cognitive classification systems of examples and non-examples. Rather, they are cognitive tools used to identify relationships among given information. Difficulties in conceptual development are more likely to bring about difficulties with overall cognitive development and later school learning. Consequently, it is necessary to identify young children who experience difficulties with conceptual development and to provide timely educational helps for these children. The purpose of the study is to compare two assessment approaches in measuring preschoolers' cognitive abilities of generalization and discrimination in relation to conceptual development: Semantic-based and perceptual-based approaches. Traditionally, a perceptual-based test has been used to measure children's abilities of concept learning, which commonly uses geometrical figures. The test, however, has been criticized for improper psychometric features; therefore, the necessity of developing alternative testing methods is being emerged. * Seoul National University ** Sejong UniversityIn this study, we developed a semantic-based test as an alternative to the traditional test. The semantic-based test was composed of pictures describing common real situations children encounter in their everyday life. The development of the test was theoretically based on research findings in the fields of cognitive psychology, bio-psychology, and child psychology. According to the findings of cognitive- and bio-psychology, knowledge representations are processed separately for perceptual and semantic information. The findings of child psychology also suggest that conceptual development in early childhood transits from perceptual-based to semantic-based development. In the study, three specific research questions were investigated in relation to validity comparisons between perceptual- and semantic-based tests. Ninety-three young children aged 4 to 6 participated in the study. Results of the study showed that the semantic-based test correlated with the expressive language measure more highly than the perceptual-based test, and that the one reflected developmental differences between abilities of discrimination and generalization more sensitively than the other. Group differences between different age groups, however, were detected by the two tests. In sum, the semantic-based approach would be more valid than the perceptual-based approach in measuring preschoolers' cognitive abilities of discrimination and generalization.
ISSN
1229-9448
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/88956
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College of Education (사범대학)Education Research Institute (교육연구소)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education)아시아교육연구 (Asian Journal of Education) Volume 04 Number 1/3 (2003)
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