S-Space College of Human Ecology (생활과학대학) Dept. of Food and Nutrition (식품영양학과) Theses (Ph.D. / Sc.D._식품영양학과)
Anti-obesity Effects of Fermented Ginseng Root and Berry in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet : 고지방 식이 섭취 마우스에서의 발효한 인삼 뿌리와 열매의 항비만 효과
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- 생활과학대학 식품영양학과
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- 서울대학교 대학원
- ginseng root ; ginseng berry ; pancreatic lipase ; high-fat diet ; obesity
- 학위논문 (박사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 생활과학대학 식품영양학과, 2017. 8. 지근억.
- Ginseng has been used as a precious remedy for thousands of years. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies reveals that ginseng and ginsenosides, the main bioactive components of ginseng, can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and reduce excess energy consumption via suppressing the over intake of food and retarding pancreatic lipase. The representative ginsenosides in ginseng root are the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type while that in ginseng berry are the protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type. The root and the berry may show a different pattern of activity due to the distinct ginsenoside profiles. Now that the deglycosylated forms of ginsenoside are more easily absorbed and exert more potent bioactivities, it is necessary to transform ginsenosides before oral ingestion. Retarding the digestion and absorption of fats in the intestine reduces energy harvest, which helps to prevent and improve obesity. The present research is aimed to screen various strains of A. niger and A. orzyae in order to transform ginsenosides in ginseng root and ginseng berry, and compare the anti-obesity effects between the root and the berry saponin in the aspects of inhibition on the activity of pancreatic lipase, and regulation of body weight and lipid metabolism in obese mice induced with high-fat diet. The results show that A. niger is more apt to transform the PPD-type ginsenoside to compound K (cK) while A. orzyae is more apt to transform the PPT-type ginsenoside to Rh1. Ginseng root and berry fermented with mycotoxin non-producing A. niger FMB S494 and A. oryzae FMB S247 contains abundant cK and Rh1, respectively. Assay of pancreatic lipase activity shows that the PPD-type ginsenosides possess more potent inhibitory effect than the PPT-type, and that transformation dramatically enhances the inhibitory effects of the root saponin and the berry saponin. Furthermore, HFD-fed mice orally administered with the root saponin have significantly higher levels of triglyceride in their feces. It therefore can be concluded that the root saponin exerts more potent inhibitory effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase than the berry saponin both in vitro and in vivo. Animal study shows that both the saponins significantly suppress body weight gain and improve hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver while only the root saponin significantly attenuates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Both the root saponin and the berry saponin have a beneficial effect on HFD-induced obesity. Compared to the berry saponin, the root saponin exhibits more potent anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effect. However, only the berry saponin significantly inhibits mRNA expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-6 in adipose tissue. Now that cK and Rh1 are respectively the absorptive forms of the PPD-type and the PPT-type ginsenosides, whether they are responsible for the anti-obesity effects of the root saponin and the berry saponin, respectively, needs to be confirmed. Additional animal study shows that both the root saponin and cK significantly reduce excess calorie consumption, body weight gain, food efficiency, fat deposition, and down-regulate the expression of gene Fas in the adipose tissue. It therefore can be concluded that cK is responsible for the anti-obesity activities of fermented ginseng root. The berry saponin also slightly reduces body weight gain, food efficiency, and down-regulates the expression of gene Fas in the adipose tissue while ginsenoside Rh1 only reduces fat deposition, which indicates that there might be other ginsenosides or other active compounds responsible for the anti-obesity effect of fermented ginseng berry. In conclusion, cK and the root saponin respectively show more potent anti-obesity effects than Rh1 and the berry saponin considering their inhibitory effects on the activity of pancreatic lipase, excess food intake, and body weight gain.
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