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HLA-A24:02 increase the risk of allopurinol-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms in HLA-B58:01 carriers in a Korean population; a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study

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Kim, Mi-Yeong; Yun, James; Kang, Dong-Yoon; Kim, Tae Hee; Oh, Min-Kyung; Lee, Sunggun; Kang, Min-Gyu; Nam, Young-Hee; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Yang, Min-Suk; Han, Seung Seok; Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Yang, Jaeseok; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Kim, Yon Su; Jung, Jae Woo; Lee, Kye Hwa; Kang, Hye-Ryun

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BioMed Central
Clinical and Translational Allergy, Vol.12 No.9, p. e12193
Background HLA-B*58:01 is a well-known risk factor for allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). However, only a minority of HLA-B*58:01 carriers suffer SCARs after taking allopurinol. The aim of this study was to investigate subsidiary genetic markers that could identify those at further increased risk of developing allopurinol-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in subjects with HLA-B*58:01. Methods Subjects with B*58:01 were enrolled (21 allopurinol-induced DRESS and 52 allopurinol-tolerant control). HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles were compared. Comparison of risk between HLAs and allopurinol-induced SCAR in separate populations was performed to support the results. Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the risk of SCAR development. Results Frequencies of A*24:02 (71.4 vs. 17.3%, p < 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 12.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-39.2) were significantly higher in B*58:01 (+) DRESS than B*58:01 (+) tolerant controls. In addition, DRB1*13:02 further increased the risk of DRESS. The phenotype frequency of A*24:02/DRB1*13:02 was significantly higher in the B*58:01 (+) DRESS group than in the B*58:01 (+) tolerant controls (52.4% vs. 5.8%, p < 0.001, OR, 66.0; 95% CI, 6.1-716.2). In 2782 allopurinol user cohort, the overall prevalence of DRESS was 0.22%, which increased to 1.62% and 2.86% in the presence of B*58:01 and B*58:01/A*24:02, respectively. Conclusion The additional secondary screening with A*24:02 and DRB1*13:02 alleles may identify those at further increased risk of allopurinol-induced DRESS in B*58:01 carriers.
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